Transforming International Dynamics and Western Alliances: Reflections on the XV BRICS Johannesburg Summit Declaration

The XV BRICS Summit, held in South Africa in August 2023, reaffirmed the commitment of its member nations (Brazil, Russia, India, China, and South Africa) to mutual respect, equality, and collaboration. They emphasized the importance of inclusive multilateralism, international law, and the United Nations (UN) for global peace, sustainable development, democracy, and human rights.

Original BRICS Members: Brazil, Russia, India, China, South Africa

New BRICS Members (Starting from January 1, 2024): Argentina, Egypt, Ethiopia, Iran, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates

Key highlights from the summit include:

Inclusive Multilateralism: BRICS nations opposed unilateral coercive measures and called for a more democratic international system. They emphasized increased representation of emerging markets and gender equality in international organizations.

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